A History of Primate Reintroduction: Tabular Version

Common Name Country Release Site Release Years Number and Source of Animals Purpose Pre-Release Preparation Acclimation Post-Release Support Post-Release Monitoring Success A Success B References
Name of Release Site Size (ha) Total Number of Animals Number WB Number CB Primary Secondary Less Than One Month One to Six Months Greater Than Six Months Less Than One Month One to Six Months Greater Than Six Months Less Than One Month One to Six Months Greater Than Six Months
1 Pygmy Loris Vietnam Botanical garden near Cuc Phuong National Park 1,200 2000-2002 9 9 0 Research Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 Kenyon et al. 2014, Streicher 2004a,b, Streicher and Nadler 2003
2 Pygmy Loris Vietnam Cat Tien National Park and Vinh Cuu Biosphere Reserve in Dong Nai Biosphere Reserve 97,000 2009, 2010, 2011,2012 13 13 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 Kenyon et al. 2014, www.go-east.org
3 Slow Loris Indonesia (Borneo) Kalimantan, site unspecified 2010-2015 6 6 0 Conservation (Reinforcement) Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 Robithoful et al 2016, www.internationalanimalrescue.org
1 Slow Loris Indonesia (Sumatra) Batuegi Special Reserve 11,000 2007 7 7 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 Collins and Nekaris 2008
2 Slow Loris Indonesia (Sumatra) Batuegi Special Reserve 11,000 2010-205 5 5 0 Conservation (Reinforcement) Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 Moore 2012, Moore et al 2014, Robithoful 2016, www.internationalanimalrescue.org
3 Slow Loris Indonesia (Java) Gunung (Mount) Halimun National Park 40,000 2010-2015 38 38 0 Conservation (Reinforcement) Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 Kenyon et al 2014, Moore 2012, Moore et al 2014, Robithoful et al 2016, www.internationalanimalrescue.org
4 White-fronted brown lemur Madagascar Nosy Mangabe island 520 1930s 1 1 0 1 Constable et al 1985
5 Collared Brown Lemur Madagascar Berenty private reserve 1,000 1975 and later 8 8 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Recreational/Aesthetic 1 Jolly et al 2012, Simmen et al 2003,
6 Collared Brown Lemur Madagascar No name given 230 2000, 2001 28 28 0 Welfare (Rescue) Research 1 1 Donati et al 2007
7 Collared Brown Lemur Madagascar No name given 2000-2001 18 18 0 Conservation (Type unspecified) Commercial 1 1 Andriamandranto 2003
8 Red-fronted Brown Lemur Madagascar Berenty private reserve 1,000 1975 8 8 0 Accidental 1 Simmen et al 2003
9 Black-and-White Ruffed Lemur Madagascar Nosy Mangabe island 520 1930s 1 1 0 Unspecified 1 Constable et al 1985
10 Black-and-White Ruffed Lemur Madagascar Betampona Reserve 2,200 1997-2001 13 13 0 Conservation (Reinforcement) Research 1 1 1 1 1 Britt et al. 2002, 2004a,b, 2008
11 Black-and-White Ruffed Lemur Madagascar Analamazaotra Special Reserve 810 2006, 2007 7 7 0 Conservation (Reintroduction) Research 1 1 1 Day et al 2009
12 Diameded Sifaka Madagascar Analamazaotra Special Reserve 810 2006, 2007 27 27 0 Conservation (Reintroduction) Research 1 1 1 Day et al 2003, Louis et al 2016
13 Aye-Aye Madagascar Nosy Mangabe 510 1967 9 9 0 Conservation (Type unspecified) Constable et al 1985, Ganzhorn and Rabesoa 1986, Mittermeier et al 2010, Petter et al 1977, Pollock et al 1985
14 GeoffroyŐs Marmoset Brazil Private plantation of Aracruz Cellulose 1992-1993 23 7 16 Conservation (Type unspecified) Research 1 1 1 1 Chiarello and Passamani 1993, Passamani and Passamani 1994
15 Common Marmoset Brazil City of Rio de Janeiro 1900s 1 1 0 Aesthetic 1 1 Konstant and Mittermeier 1982
16 Common Marmoset Brazil Forests northeast of Rio along main highway BR101 1970 - present 120 120 0 Welfare (Non-lethal control) Aesthetic 1 1 Konstant and Mittermeir 1982, de Morais Jr. et al. 2008, Ruiz-Miranda et al. 2006, 2011
17 Black Tufted-eared Marmoset Brazil Forests northeast of Rio along main highway BR101 1970 - present 1 1 0 Welfare (Non-lethal control) Aesthetic 1 1 de Morais Jr. et al. 2008, Ruiz-Miranda et al. 2006, 2011
21 Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin Brazil Fazenda Taquera 2012 to present (ongoing) 293 293 0 Welfare (Non-lethal control) Conservation 1 1 1 Kierulff 2011, 2012,2015
22 Black Lion Tamarin Brazil Tijuca National Park, City of Rio de Janeiro 1970s 1 0 1 Accidental (Escape) 1 Coimbra-Filho and Mittermeier 1978
23 Black Lion Tamarin Brazil Fazenda Mosquito, Morro do Diabo State Park 1,344 1995- 2008 21 20 1 Conservation (Reintroduction, Reinforcement) Research 1 1 1 1 Medici et al. 2003, Rezende 2015, Rezende et al. 2016, Valladares-Padua et al. 2000
24 Golden Lion Tamarin Brazil Tijuca National Park, and forested areas of the Rio de Janeiro Zoo, City of Rio de Janeiro 1970s 5 2 3 Accidental (Escape) 1 Coimbra-Filho and Mitteremeier 1978
25 Golden Lion Tamarin Brazil Poo das Antas Reserve, Uni‹o Reserve and surrounding privately owned ranches Poco das Antas=5,000 ha, Uni‹o Reserve=3,200 ha, ranches=3,200 ha 1983-2000 188 42 146 Conservation (Reinforcement, Reintroduction) Research 1 1 1 1 1 1 Beck 2013, Beck et al 1990, 2002, Kierulff and de Oliveira 1994, Kierulff et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2012, Lemmon 1991, Montali et al 1993, Ruiz-Miranda et al. 2012, www.savetheliontamarin.org
26 Red-Handed Tamarin Surinam Surinam River 1964 14 14 0 Welfare (Rescue) Konstant and Mittermeier 1982
27 Golden-Handed Tamarin French Guiana Forests on the Sinnamary River 15,000 19,941,995 98 98 0 Welfare (Rescue) 1 1 1 Vie and Richard-Hensen 1997, de Thoisy 2001
28 Moustached Tamarin Peru Padre Isla Island 8,300 1977-1980 87 87 0 Commercial Research 1 1 1 1 Konstant and Mittermeir 1982, Moya and Soini undated
29 Cotton-top Tamarin Colombia Tayrona National Natural Park 12,692 1973 or 1974 30 30 0 Welfare (Non-lethal control) 1 1 Defler et al 2003, Mast et al 1993, Villarreal 2010, Villarreal and Amaya-Espinel 2013
30 Cotton-top Tamarin Colombia Bosque La Monta–ita 2009 5 3 2 Research 1 1 1 1 Arango Guerra et al 2013
31 Saki Monkey French Guiana Forests on the Sinnamary River 15,000 1994-1995 6 6 0 Welfare (Rescue) Research 1 1 1 de Thoisy 2001, Vie and Richard Hensen 1997
32 White-Throated Capuchin Monkey Surinam Surinam River 1964 3 3 0 Welfare (Rescue) Konstant and Mittermeier 1982
33 Brown Capuchin Monkey Colombia Los Llanos Orientales 1999 8 8 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 Suarez et al 2001
34 Squirrel Monkey United States Bartlett Estate, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 14 1940s or 1960s 4 4 0 Unspecified 1 1 Anderson et al 2017, Layne 1997, Taylor and Lehman 1997, Wheeler 1990
35 Squirrel Monkey United States Silver River, Florida 1960 1 1 0 Commercial 1 Anderson et al 2017, Layne 1997, Maples et al 1976
36 Squirrel Monkey United States Masterpiece Gardens, Lake Wales, Florida 1960s 1 1 0 Commercial 1 Anderson et al 2017, Bair 1981, 1983, Layne 1997
37 Squirrel Monkey United States Gordon River, Naples, Florida 1960s 1 1 0 Unspecified Anderson et al 2017
38 Squirrel Monkey United States Florida Atlantic University campus late 1960s or early 1970s 40 40 0 Aesthetic 1 Anderson etal 2017, Florida Fish and Game Commission website: myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/nonnatives/mammals , Tarrant 1976
39 Squirrel Monkey Surinam Unspecified 1964 32 32 0 Welfare (Rescue) Konstant and Mittermeier 1982
40 Squirrel Monkey Colombia Santa Sofia Island 405 1967-1970 5,690 5,690 0 Commercial 1 1 1 1 Bailey et al. 1974, Hannah 1989, Konstant and Mittermeier 1982, Mittermeier et al. 1977, Sponsel, et al. 1974, Tsalickis 1972
41 Squirrel Monkey French Guiana Ile-de-Mre 56 1981 (Cohort I) 300 300 0 Commercial Welfare (Non-lethal control) 1 1 1 De Thoisy and Contamin 1998, de Thoisy et al 2002
42 Squirrel Monkey French Guiana Ile-de-Mre 56 1999 (Cohort II) 14 9 5 Welfare (Non-lethal Control) Research 1 1 1 1 1 Vogel et al 2002
43 Squirrel Monkey Brazil Saltinho Biological Reserve 548 1987 25 25 0 Welfare Non-lethal Control 1 Camarotti et al 2015, Oliveira and Grelle 2012
44 Black-and-Gold Howler Monkey Brazil Brasilia National Park 35,000 1983 7 0 7 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 Santini 1986a, b
45 Black-and-Gold Howler Monkey Argentina Four 0.18-ha fragments on a private estate in Cordoba 0.72 1994-2004 34 26 8 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 Bruno et al 2005
46 Brown Howler Monkey Brazil Tijuca Forest 39,500 2015 4 4 0 Conservation Welfare (Rehab) 1 1 1 de Oliveira Neto 2015, Escobar 2016
47 Mantled Howler Monkey Mexico Mirador Pilapa Park 5 1980s 7 7 0 Welfare (Rescue) Research Garcia-Orduna et al. 1987, Horwich et al 1993.
48 Mantled Howler Monkey Mexico Agaltepec Island, Lake Catemaco 10 1988, 1989 12 12 0 Research 1 1 1 Rodriguez-Luna and CortŽs-Ortiz 1994, Serio-Silva 1997.
49 Mantled Howler Monkey Mexico Flor de Catemaco 90 2000s? 4 4 0 Research 1 1 1 Shedden-Gonzalez and Rodriguez-Luna 2010.
50 Mantled Howler Monkey, Black Howler Monkey Mexico Various 1990 to 2015 550 550 0 Welfare (Rescue) Research 1 1 1 Canales Espinosa et al 2016.
51 Mantled Howler Monkey Costa Rica Unspecified 1989 10 10 0 Welfare (Rescue) Research 1 Horwich et al 1993, de Vries 1991
52 Black Howler Monkey Belize Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary 51,800 ha 1992, 1993,1994 62 62 0 Conservation (Reintroduction) 1 1 1 1 Cannon 2017, Horwich et al 1993, 2002, 2014, Ostro et al 1999, Silver et al 1998
53 Black Howler Monkey Belize Unspecified Unspecified 2 2 0 Accidental 1 1 Horwich et al. 1993.
54 Black Howler Monkey Belize Monkey Bay National Park 859 1998 2 2 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 1 Brockett and Clark 2000.
55 Black Howler Monkey Belize Unspecified protected areas 1998-2008 28 28 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 Brockett 2008
56 Red Howler Monkey Surinam Unspecified forests 1964 479 479 0 Welfare (Rescue) Konstant and Mittermeier 1982
57 Red Howler Monkey Venezuela Unspecified forests Late 1960s 1 1 0 Welfare (Rescue) Konstant and Mittermeier 1982
58 Red Howler Monkey French Guiana Unspecified forests 15,000 1994-1995 124 124 0 Welfare (Rescue) Research 1 1 1 Richard-Hansen et al. 2000, de Thoisy et al. 2001,ViŽ and Richard-Hansen 1997
59 Red Howler Monkey Venezuela Hato Flores Moradas 1989 1 1 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 Agoramoorthy 1995
60 Black-faced Spider Monkey Peru Pacaya Samiria National Reserve 2,000,000 2012 9 9 0 Conservation (Reinforcement) Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 De Palomino 2013
61 Black-faced Spider Monkey Peru Tericaya Ecological Reserve 476 2010-2014 23 23 0 Conservation (Reintroduction) 1 1 1 1 www.monosperu.com
62 GeoffroyŐs Spider Monkey Panama Barro Colorado Island 15,600 1959-1966 19 19 0 Conservation (Reintroduction) 1 1 1 1 Eisenberg and Kuehn 1966, Konstant and Mittermeier 1982, Milton and Hopkins 2006
63 GeoffroyŐs Spider Monkey Panama Barro Colorado Island 15,600 1991 5 5 0 Welfare (Non-lethal control) Conservation (Reinforcement) 1 1 1 Milton and Hopkins 2006.
64 Black Spider Monkey Belize Ňprotected forestÓ 2007 3 3 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 Brockett 2008
65 Black Spider Monkey French Guiana ŇforestÓ 15,000 1994 1 1 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) ViŽ and Richard-Hansen 1997.
66 Muriqui Brazil Caratinga Biological Station 1992 1 1 0 Welfare (Rescue) Conservation 1 1 Nogueira et al 1994
67 Woolly Monkey Ecuador Small island in Rio Napo 1970s 1 1 0 Commercial 1 Konstant and Mittermeier 1982
68 Woolly Monkey Peru Small forest plot in a buffer zone just north of the Area de Conservacion Regional Communal de Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo 445,000 2005-2014 5 5 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Conservation 1 1 1 Beaver, 2017
69 Woolly Monkey Colombia Amacayacu National Park 422,000 2010 8 8 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Conservation 1 1 1 1 Bennett et al 2013, Defler 2017, Mill‡n 2014
70 Vervet Barbados, Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Anguilla, Territories of the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands Caribbean islands of Barbados, Nevis, St. Kitts, Anguilla, St. Martin 1600s 1 1 0 Commercial Recreational 1 1 Boulton et al 1996, Konstant and Mittermeier 1982, McGuire 1974
71 Vervet United States Westlake Park, Dania Beach, Florida 3,700 1950s 12 12 0 Accidental (Escape) Welfare (Non-lethal control) 1 Anderson et al 2017, Fleshler 2015, myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/nonnatives/mammals, Hyler 1995, Nolin 2013, Williams 2016
72 Vervet Zimbabwe Zebra Island in Lake kariba 155 1977 18 17 1 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 Wilson 1980
73 Vervet South Africa Various locations in South Africa 1994-2015 461 460 1 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 www.riversidewrc.com
74 Vervet South Africa Duma Manzi private Game Reserve and other private land in KwaZulu-Natal 5,000 2007, 2009 134 133 1 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 1 Guy et al 2012a, Wimburger 2009, Wimburger et al 2010.
75 Vervet South Africa Ntendeka Wilderness Area, 5,250 ha, Isishlengeni Game Farm, 30 km2, private plantation, 23,000 ha 31,256 2008, 2009, 2010 77 74 3 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 1 Guy 2013, Guy et al 2011, 2012b, 2014
76 Vervet Kenya Diani 2012 12 12 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 Donaldson 2013, 2016
77 Blue Monkey South Africa Pafuri area of Kruger National Park 24,000 1982-1988 95 95 0 Welfare (Non-lethal control) Anon undated a, Lawes 2002
78 Blue (SykesŐ) Monkey Kenya Arabuko Sokoke National Forest 1995 20 20 0 Research 1 1 Stoinski et al 1996
79 Mona Monkey Grenada Unspecified Unspecified 1600-1800 1 1 0 Commercial 1 1 Glenn and Bensen 2016, Gunst et al 2016, Lippold 1989
80 Mona Monkey Nigeria Iko Esai Community Forest 400 2007 3 3 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Conservation 1 1 1 1 Anon 2008a, Tooze 2008, Tooze and Baker 2008,
81 Patas Monkey Puerto Rico Islands of Cueva (22 ha) and El Guayac‡n (11 ha), Boqueron Community Forest, and Sierra Bermeja hills, approximately 22,000 ha, and surrounding area 22,033 1971-1979, 1981 131 113 18 Commercial Accidental 1 1 1 1 1 Anon 2008b, Engeman et al 2010, Gonzalez-Martinez 1998, 2004, Kessler and Rawlins 2016, Loy 1989
82 Mandrill Gabon LŽkŽdi Park 1,750 2006 36 0 36 Welfare (Non-lethal Control) Research 1 1 1 1 Peignot et al 2008
83 Mandrill Republic of Congo Conkouati-Douli National Park 505,000 2015 15 15 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 1 Cox 2016, Woodruff et al 2016, www.janegoodallinstitute.org,
84 Yellow and Anubis Baboons Japan Tsukumijima (Tukumisima) Island Late 1950s/early 1960s 1 1 0 Research Commercial Furuya 1965, Hirata 2017, Kawai 1960
85 Yellow Baboon Malawi Kasungu National Park 231,500 2013 26 26 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 Ipema 2013
86 Olive Baboon Kenya Laikipia Plateau 1984 131 131 0 Welfare (Non-lethal control Research 1 1 1 1 1 1 Strum 2002, 2005
87 Chacma Baboon South Africa Vredefort Dome and other sites in or near Kruger National Park 2002-2014 54 54 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 Anon 2005, Dewhirst 2014
88 Chacma Baboon South Africa Kondowe, Limpopo 4,000 2011 24 23 1 Welfare (Rehabilitation) www.riversidewrc.com
89 Black and White Colobus Monkey Kenya Unspecified Unspecified 1 1 0 Welfare (rehabilitation) 1 Shumaker 1999
90 Black and White Colobus Monkey Kenya Karura Forest 1,063 ha Unspecified 143 143 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 Donaldson 2013, 2016, Friends of Karura Forest 2016
91 Black and White Colobus Monkey Kenya Delamere Estates, Naivasha Unspecified 1 1 0 Unspecified Murage 2016
92 Red Colobus Monkey Tanzania Ngezi-Vumawimbi Forest Reserve on Pemba Island, 10km2 and Mayingini, Masingini (556 ha), and Kichwele Forest Reserves on Unguja Island, all in the Zanzibar Archipelago 1,556 1974, 1977, 1978, 1982 59 59 0 Conservation (Reintroduction, 3 releases, Introduction, 1 release]) Research 1 1 Butynski and de Jong 2011, Camperio et al 2001, Sikuluwasha 1981, Struhsaker and Siex 1998
93 Stump-tail Macaque Thailand Kao Tao 1965, 1966 24 24 0 Welfare (Rescue) Bertrand 1969, Hannah 1989
94 Stump-tail Macaque Mexico Totogochillo Island 0.4 1974 32 9 23 Commercial Research 1 Brereton 1994, Estrada and Estrada 1976, 1981
95 Stump-tail Macaque Scotland Alloa Inch (island) 19.0 1981 4 0 4 Welfare (Non-lethal control Research 1 1 Anderson 2017, Chamove 2017, Sexton and Stewart 2005
96 Stump-tail Macaque Vietnam Ňcentral highlands of southern VietnamÓ 2014 4 2 2 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 Khoi 2014
97 Formosan Rock Macaque Japan Kii Peninsula, Wakayama Prefecture 1955 1 1 0 Unspecified Kawamoto et al 1999
98 Formosan Rock Macaque Japan Nojima Island 1958 1 1 0 Research Commercial Furuya 1965, Hirata 2107, Kawai 1960, Kawai and Mito 1972, Nishida 1963
99 Crab-eating Macaque Mauritius Island-wide 186,500 Late 16th and 17th centuries 1 1 0 Commercial 1 1 Konstant and Mittermeier 1982, Sussman and Tattersall 1981, 1986
100 Crab-eating Macaque Palau Angaur Island 800 early 1900s 2 2 0 Accidental (Escape) 1 1 Poirier and Smith 1974
101 Crab-eating Macaque United States Forested tract in Florida 7 1933 6 6 0 Research Commercial 1 1 1 1 1 DuMond 1967, www.monkeyjungle.org
102 Crab-eating Macaque Japan Kijima Island 0.1 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961 87 87 0 Research Commercial 1 1 1 1 Furuya 1965, Hirata 2017
103 Crab-eating Macaque Indonesia Tinjil Island (600 ha), Deli Island (950 ha) 1550 1988-1992 1,540 1,540 0 Commercial Conservation (Introduction) 1 1 1 1 1 Anon undated d, Bowden and Smith 1992, Crockett et al 1996, Kyes 1993
104 Crab-eating Macaque Thailand Nong Yai Water Reservoir 1 1 0 Welfare (non-lethal control) 1 Malaivijitnond and Hamada 2008, Malaivijitnond et al 2011
105 Crab-eating Macaque Thailand Wat Pa Sila Wiwek Between 2000 and 2004 1 1 0 Commercial 1 Malaivijitnond and Hamada 2008, Malaivijitnond et al 2011
106 Japanese Macaque Japan ďhirayama Mountain 1956, 1957 81 81 0 Research Commercial 1 1 1 1 Furuya 1965, Hirata 2017,Kawai 1960
107 Japanese Macaque United States Texas, enclosure 17 1972 98 98 0 Welfare (Non-lethal control) Research 1 1 1 1 Candland and Bush 1995, Fedigan 1991, Gouzoulez 1977, Moore 2017a, b
108 Rhesus Macaque United States Small island in Silver River, Florida 1938, 1948, 1980s 18 18 0 Commercial Accidental (Escape) 1 1 1 1 Anderson et al 2016a, 2016b, 2017, Floehe 2010, myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/nonnatives/mammals, Gillespie 2016, Maples et al 1976, Phoebus 1989, Riley and Wade 2016, Wolfe, 2002, Wolfe and Peters 1987, www.baynews9.com
109 Rhesus Macaque Puerto Rico, territory of the United States Cayo Santiago (15 ha), Cuerva (40 ha), Guayac‡n (40 ha), and Desecheo (1,200 ha) Islands, and the Puerto Rican mainland 1,295 1938-1975 839 839 0 Commercial Research 1 1 1 1 1 Carpenter 1940, 1942,Engeman et al 2010, Evans 1989, Jensen et al 2004, Kessler and Rawlins 1986, Phoebus 1989, Rawlins and Kessler 2016, Vandenbergh 1989
110 Rhesus Macaque India In and around Bombay (Mumbai) early 1940s 1 1 0 Commercial Welfare (Non-lethal Control) Radhakrishna and Sinha 2011, Serrao and Amladi 1979
111 Rhesus Macaque United States Raccoon Key, 120 ha and Loggerhead (Lois) Key, 40 ha, in the Florida Keys 160 1973-1976 1409 1409 0 Commercial 1 1 1 1 1 Anderson et al 2017, Johnson 1989, Johnson and Kapsalis 1995, 1998, Kleindienst 1997, Kruer 1996, Lehman et al 1994
112 Rhesus Macaque United States Wooded area in Titusville, Florida 1976 40 40 0 Welfare (non-lethal control) Accidental Anderson et al 2017, Layne 1997
113 Rhesus Macaque United States Morgan Island, off Beaufort, South Carolina 1,186 1979-1984 2,388 2,388 0 Commercial Welfare (Non-lethal Contro)l 1 1 1 1 1 Davis 2016, Jensen et al 2004, Klopchin et al 2008, Taub and Mehlman
114 Rhesus Macaque India Aligarh District 1983 20 20 0 Welfare (Non-lethal Control 1 1 1 Southwick et al 1998
115 Rhesus Macaque India Meetha Pur (rural area), Lal Kuan public park 1989, 1990 34 34 0 Welfare (Non-lethal Control) Research 1 1 1 Malik and Johnson 1994
116 Rhesus Macaque India Tuglaqabad Fort, New Delhi Unspecified 40 40 0 Welfare Non-lethal Control Sambyal et al 2009
117 Rhesus Macaque India Forested areas near the Vrindaban holy area 1997 600 600 0 Welfare (Non-lethal control Research 1 1 Imam et al 2002, Southwick et al 1998
118 Rhesus Macaque India Firozpur-Jhirka natural forest 1998 22 22 0 Welfare (Non-lethal Control) 1 1 Imam et al 2001.
119 Rhesus Macaque India Pilibhut and Kuno National Parks, Asolo Batti Sanctuary; other unspecified destination sites 1987-1988, 2004 600 600 0 Welfare (Non-lethal Control) Lenin 2008, Malik and Johnson 1994, Panwar and Misra 2004, Pirta et al 1997
120 Rhesus Macaque India Five forested sites in Nagrota 2008 431 431 0 Welfare (Non-lethal Control) 1 Sambyal et al 2009
121 Pig-tailed Macaque Indonesia Batuegi Reserve 11,000 2006 1 1 0 Welfare (Non-lethal control) Collinsand Nekaris 2008
122 Sulawesi Black Macaque Indonesia Bacan Island 171,000 Unspecified 1 1 0 Commercial 1 1 Hamada et al 1994, Rosenblum et al 1998
123 Bonnet Macaque India Savandurga forest reserve 647 1975 718 718 0 Welfare (Non-lethal control) Religious 1 Anon1976b
124 Lion-tailed Macaque United States St. Catherines Island, Georgia 1991 1 0 1 Research 1 1 Dierenfeld and McCann 1999, Fitch-Snyder and Carter 1993, Lindberg and Gledhill 1992
125 Tibetan Macaque China Mt. Huangshan 1992 43 43 0 Commercial 1 1 Berman and Li 2002, Usui et al 2014
126 Barbary Macaque Gibralter (British Overseas Territory) Rock of Gibralter 200 Unspecified 1 1 0 Other (Politically Symbolic) Conservation (Reintroduction) 1 1 1 1 Candland and Bush 1995, Fa 1987, Modolo et al 2003, Schiermeier 2003, www.gonhs.org
127 Barbary Macaque Morocco Unspecified site(s) in Atlas Mountains 1980, 1986 562 2 560 Welfare (Non-lethal Control) Conservation (Reinforcement) 1 1 1 Angst 1991
128 Barbary Macaque Morocco Ifrane National Park 50,000 2013-2014 4 4 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 Waters et al 2016
129 Proboscis Monkey Indonesia Unprotected islets near Palau Kaget Nature Reserve, East Kalimantan 1997, 1998 84 84 0 (Welfare (Rescue) 1 Mejaard and Nijman 2000
130 Javan Grizzled Leaf Monkey Indonesia Unspecified sites in West java 2015 8 8 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation 1 1 1 Javan Primates Conservation Project Facebook page
131 Javan Langur Indonesia Mt. Hyang and Mt. Semeru, East Java Unspecified 54 54 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Wedana et al 2013
132 Javan Langur Indonesia Coban Talun Protected Forest, East Java, 28,000 ha 28,000 2012, 2015, 2016 37 32 5 Conservation (Reinforcement) Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 Wedana et al 2013a, b, Javan Primates Conservation Project Facebook page
133 Javan Langur Indonesia Unspecified Unspecified 50 50 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Anon 2015a
134 Javan Langur Indonesia Lombok Island 451,400 Unspecified 1 1 0 Unspecified 1 Heinsohn 2003
135 DelacourŐs Leaf Monkey Vietnam Van Long Nature Reserve 3,000 2011, 2012 5 0 5 Research Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 1 Agmen 2014, Elser et al 2015, Nadler 2012, www.go-east.org
136 Cat Ba Langur Vietnam Cat Ba National Park 26,300 2012 2 2 0 Conservation (Reinforcement) 1 1 1 Passaro 2012
137 Douc Langur Vietnam Unspecified Unspecified 1 1 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Lippold and Tranh 2015.
138 Silver Leaf Monkey Cambodia Angkor Temple Complex 40,000 2015 3 3 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) www.wildlifealliance.org
139 Western Hoolock Gibbon India Nokrek National Park 4,700 2016 2 2 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 Programme Huro Facebook page, www.fondationlepalnature.org
140 Eastern Hoolock Gibbon India Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary 28,200 2011-2014 22 22 0 Welfare (Rescue) 1 1 1 1 0 Campbell et al 2015.
141 Agile Gibbon Indonesia Bukit Baka Buki Raya National Park 118,200 2000 2 2 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Accidental (Escape) 1 Cheyne and BrulŽ 2004, Cheyne et al 2008
142 Agile Gibbon Indonesia Mintin Island, Borneo 100 2003, 2004 4 4 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 0 Cheyne 2005, 2006, 2009a, 2009b, Cheyne and BrulŽ 2004, 2008, Cheyne et al 2008
143 Agile Gibbon Indonesia Hampapak Reserve, Borneo 1,500 2007 6 4 2 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 Cheyne 2009b
144 White-handed Gibbon Puerto Rico Cayo Santiago 15 1939 14 14 0 Commercial Research 1 1 Kessler and Rawlins 2016
145 White-handed Gibbon Thailand Ko Klet Keao Island 24 1966-1967 28 28 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 Bennett 1992, Berkson et al 1971, Brockelman et al 1973, Brockelman et al 1974, Soave 1982.
146 White-handed Gibbon Bermuda HallŐs Island 0.6 1970-1971 10 10 0 Research 1 1 Anon. 1976a, Baldwin and Teleki 1976, Delgado et al 1978, Eudey 1991-1992
147 White-handed Gibbon Thailand Saiyok 22,500 1976-1977 31 26 5 Welfare (Non-lethal Control) Research 1 1 1 1 1 Tingpalapong et al 1981, Marshall 1992
148 White-handed Gibbon Thailand Unspecified area of Phuket Island and surrounding islands 1993-1995 13 13 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 Osterberg et al 2014, 2015
149 White-handed Gibbon Thailand Khao Phra Thaew forest on Phuket Island 2,228 2002-2016 37 29 8 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Conservation (Reintroduction) 1 1 1 1 1 Campbell et al 2015, Cheyne 2009b, Osterberg et al 2014, 2015, Shanee and Shanee 2007, www.gibbonproject.org
150 White-handed Gibbon Thailand Non-hunting conservation zone in the village of Baan Chum Pee in the province of Chiang Mai 814 2014-2016 15 14 1 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 www.gibbonproject.org
151 White-handed Gibbon Thailand Lum Nam Pai Wildlife Sanctuary 118,100 2012, 2013 7 4 3 Welfare (Rehabilitation 1 1 1 1 1 Wiek 2014
152 Javan Silvery Gibbon Indonesia Mount Puntang of Malabar 9,000 2009, 2013, 2014, 2015 12 10 2 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 Smith 2011, www.ekuatorial.com, www.silvery.org.au
153 Javan Silvery Gibbon Indonesia Mount Tilu Nature Reserve 8,000 20,142,015 7 6 1 Conservation (Reinforcement) Research 1 1 1 1 1 Adiputra and Jeffery 2016, Dipa 2016, www.aspinallfoundation.org
154 MuellerŐs (Grey) Gibbon Malaysia Semengok Forest Reserve, Sarawak 650 1976-1988 87 87 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Bennett 1992, Campbell et al 2015, Ramlee 2006
155 Pileated Gibbon Thailand Khao Kheio-Khao Chompoo Wildlife Sanctuary 14,500 2004-2006 6 6 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 Yatbantoong 2007
156 Pileated Gibbon Cambodia Angkor Temple Complex 40,000 2012, 2015 4 4 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 1 www.wildlifealliance.org
157 Yellow- (Golden-) Cheeked Gibbon Vietnam Vinh Cuu Nature Reserve (adjacent to 970,000 Cat Tien National Park) 970,000 2011 6 4 2 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 Kenyon et al 2015, www.go-east.org
158 Siamang Indonesia Marak Island, Sumatra and an unspecified location in Sumatra 1,000 2006 and 2014 4 4 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 Cheyne 2009b, www. chaneekalaweit.blogspot.com, www.fondationlepalnature.org
159 ŇGibbonÓ Indonesia South Tapanuli Forest, Sumatra 2016 3 3 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Sumatra Rainforest Institute Facebook site 2016
160 Bornean Orangutan Malaysia Bako National Park 1,500 1962 3 3 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation Research 1 1 1 1 Harrisson 1963, 1987
161 Bornean Orangutan Malaysia Sepilok Forest Reserve 4,294 1964-2002 226 226 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 1 Agoramoorthy and Hsu 2006, Aveling and Mitchell 1981, de Silva 1971, Fernando 2000/2001, MacKinnon 1977, Mydans, 1973, www.orangutan-appeal.org.uk
162 Bornean Orangutan Malaysia Semenggoh Wildlife Reserve 640 1975-2000 32 32 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 1 Commitante et al 2015, Mail 2013, www.sarawakforestry.com
163 Bornean Orangutan Malaysia Tabin Wildlife Reserve 120,000 1993, 1994 177 177 0 Welfare (Non-lethal control) Andau et al 1994, Sale et al 1995
164 Bornean Orangutan Malaysia Tabin Wildlife Reserve 120,000 2010, 2012 8 8 0 Research Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 1 Robins et al 2013, Singleton et al 2004
165 Bornean Orangutan Malaysia Kubah or Batang Ai National Park 2,230 Late 1990s 3 3 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Commitante et al 2015, Mail 2013, www.sarawakforestry.com
166 Bornean Orangutan Indonesia Tanjung Puting National Park and Lamandau Wildlife Reserve, 415,040 and 54,000 ha respectively 469,040 1971 to 2015 450 450 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 1 Aveling and Mitchell 1982, Banes et al 2016, Galdikas-Brindamour 1975, Russon 2004, Singleton et al 2004, Warren and Swan 2002, www.orangutan.org, Yeager 1997.
167 Bornean Orangutan Indonesia East Kalimantan. Sungai Wain and Meratus Protected Forests, Kehje Sewen Forest, 9,783, 28,261, and 86,450 ha respectively. 124,494 1991-2017 537 536 1 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 1 Anon 2015b, Commitante et al 2015, Grundmann 2005, Peters 1995, Russon 2002a,b, 2004, 2009, Siregar et al 2010, Smits 2001, Smits et al 1995, Warren and Swan 2002, www.yorku.ca/arusson/rehab_sites.htm
168 Bornean Orangutan Indonesia Central Kalimantan. Bukit Batikap Conervation Forest and Bukit Baka Raya National Park, 32,000 ha and 3,500 ha respectively. Bagantung, Mantangi River 35,500 2012-2017 301 270 31 Welfare (Rehabilitation, Rescue) Research 1 1 1 1 1 Commitante et al 2015, Husson et al 2014, 2016, Nugraha and Jacobson 2016, www.orangutan.or.id
169 Bornean Orangutan Indonesia Gunung Tarak Protected Forestand Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park 32,000 2010, 2013, 2014, 2016 15 15 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation,Rescue) Research 1 1 1 1 Campbel-Smith et al 2016, Commitante et al 2016, Dasgupta 2016, www.internationalanimalrescue.org, www.orangutan.com
170 Sumatran Orangutan Indonesia Gunung Leuser National Park (Ketambe) 800,000 1971-1974 31 31 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 1 MacKinnon 1977, Rijksen 1974, 1978, Rijksen and Rijksen-Graatsma 1978, Russon 2009
171 Sumatran Orangutan Indonesia Gunung Leuser National Park (Bohorok) 800,000 1973-2007 229 229 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 1 Aveling and Mitchell 1981, Dellatore 2007, Frey 1978, Husson et al 2014, www.bukitlawang.com, www.orangutanrepublik.org
172 Sumatran Orangutan Indonesia Bukit Tigapuluh National Park and Pinus Jantho Nature Reserve, 350 km2 and 75km2 respectively 42,500 2003-2016 230 227 3 Conservation (Reintroduction sensu strictu) Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 1 1 Beck 2016, Cocks and Bullo 2008, Commitante et al 2015, McKelson and Singleton 2016, Riedler et al 2010, Trayford et al 2010, www.iansingletonsocp.com, www.orangutan.org.au, www.sumatranorangutan.org
173 Grauer's Gorilla Democratic Republic of Congo Kahuzi Biega National Park 600,000 1976 1 1 0 Accidental Conservation (Reinforcement) 1 1 Anon undated b, Banes et al 2016, Heminway 1972, Lyon 1976
174 Mountain Gorilla Rwanda Volcanoes National Park 1980 1 1 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Conservation (Reinforcement) 1 1 Fossey1983, Weber and Vedder 2001
175 Grauer's Gorilla Democratic Republic of Congo Volcanoes National Park 600,000 2000 1 1 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Conservation (Reinforcement) 1 1 Shalukoma 2000
176 Mountain Gorilla Rwanda Volcanoes National Park 2002, 2003 2 2 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Conservation (Reinforcement) 1 1 Anon 2002b, 2003, Childs 2006, Cress 2010, Mudakikwa 2002, Spelman 2007, Whittier and Fawcett 2006
177 Lowland Gorilla Republic of Gabon Ipassa Makokou Biosphere Reserve 15,000 early 1970s 1 1 0 Unspecified Hladik 1978
178 Lowland Gorilla Republic of Congo Lefini Faunal Reserve 630,000 1996-2006 25 24 1 Conservation (Reintroduction) Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 1 1 Anon undated c, Attwater 1999, Attwater 2001, Courage et al 2001, Farmer and Courage 2008, Hanlon 2007, King and Chamberlan 2007, King and Courage 2008, King et al 2005a,b, 2012, 2014, McRae 2000, Wells 1993
179 Lowland Gorilla Republic of Gabon BatŽkŽ Plateau National Park 204,400 2001, 2004 26 17 9 Conservation (Reintroduction) Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 1 1 Beck et al 2007, King et al 2012, 2014, Pearson et al 2007
180 Lowland Gorilla Republic of Gabon BatŽkŽ Plateau National Park 204,400 2014-2016 10 1 9 Aesthetic Conservation (Reinforcement) 1 1 1 1 Beck 2016, Jones 2014, Stahl 2015, www.aspinallfoundation.com
181 Lowland Gorilla Republic of Gabon Petit Evengue Island 200 2001 4 2 2 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Research 1 1 1 1 Keizer and Keizer 2004
182 Bonobo Democratic Republic of Congo Luo Scientific Reserve 15,000 1991 1 1 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 Idani 1993
183 Bonobo Democratic Republic of Congo Maringa-Lopori-Wamba forest landscape 16,200 2009, 2001 16 14 2 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Conservation (Reintroduction) 1 1 1 1 1 Morel 2017
184 Chimpanzee Tanzania Rubondo Island 24,000 1966-1969 17 17 0 Conservation (Introduction) Welfare (Non-lethal Contro)l 1 1 1 Borner 1985, Matsumota-Oda 2004, Moscovice et al 2007
185 Chimpanzee Uganda Kibale National Park 76,600 1994 1 1 0 Research Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 Morell 1994, Treves and Naughton-Treves 1997
186 Chimpanzee Uganda Isinga Island, Queen Elizabeth National Park 5 1995 12 12 0 Welfare (Non-lethal Control, Rehabilitation) 1 1 Manning 1996
187 Chimpanzee Republic of Gabon Ipassa Island in Ipassa Makokou Biosphere Reserve 65 early 1970s 8 8 0 Unspecified 1 1 Hannah 1989, Hannah and McGrew 1991, Hladik 1978
188 Chimpanzee Senegal Nioloka Koba National Park 913,000 1973-1978 14 12 2 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 Badham 1979, Brewer 1976, 1978, 1980, Brewer Marsden et al 2006, Carter 2003b, c, pers comm, Carter et al 2003, Lemmon 1987
189 Chimpanzee The Gambia Small island in River Gambia National Park 77 1979 8 7 1 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 Brewer 1976, 1980, Brewer Marsden et al 2006, Carter 1988, 2003b c, pers comm
190 Chimpanzee The Gambia Baboon Island, River Gambia National Park 435 1979 9 7 2 Welfare (Rehabilitation, Non-lethal Control) 1 1 1 1 Carter 1981 a,b 1988, 2003b
191 Chimpanzee The Gambia Baboon Island and two other small islands in River Gambia National Park 565 1986-2005 33 33 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 Beck 2010, 2016, Brewer Marsden et al 2006, Carter 1988, 2003b,c, pers comm, Hannah and McGrew 1991, www.friendsofanimals.org
192 Chimpanzee Liberia Five islands in the Little Bassa River 125 1976-2006 125 125 0 Welfare (Non-lethal Control, Rehabilitation) Conservation (Reintroduction) 1 1 1 1 Agoramoorthy and Hsu 1999, Carter 2003b, Clifton 2015, Conlee and Desmond 2015, Hannah 1989, Hannah and McGrew 1991, Prince 1985, 2005, Revkin 1996
193 Chimpanzee Ivory Coast Island in Bandama River, Azagany National Park 20 1983 20 20 0 Welfare (Non-lethal Control, Rehabilitation) Conservation (Reinforcement) 1 1 1 Carter 2003b, Clifton 2015, Hannah 1989, Prince 1985, Wanshel 2016
194 Chimpanzee USA Bear Island 10 1972, 1973 8 5 3 Commercial Research 1 1 1 McGrew 1983, Soave 1982, Wilson and Elicker 1976
195 Chimpanzee Republic of Congo Conkouati Douli National Park 505,000 1996-2012 53 53 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) Conservation (Reinforcement) 1 1 1 1 Aczel 1993, 1997, Beck et al 1994, Farmer 2000, 2002, Farmer and Jamart 2002, Farmer et al 2006, 2010, Goossens et al 2002, 2003, 2005, IUCN 1998, Karlowski 1996, Le Hallaye et al 2010, Renaud et al 2010, Tutin et al 2001 .
196 Chimpanzee Republic of Guinea Kerfalya Island 1 1992 12 12 0 Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 Carter 2003b, Teleki 2001.
197 Chimpanzee Nigeria Afi Mountain Sanctuary 10,400 late 1990s 4 4 0 Accidental (Escape) 1 Carter 2003b, Farmer 2002b, Gadsby 2002, Pandrillus 2017
198 Chimpanzee Sierra Leone Western Area Peninsula National Park 17,688 late 1990s?, 2006 36 32 4 Accidental (Escape) 1 Carter 2003b, Farmer 2002b, Kabasawa et al 2008
199 Chimpanzee Senegal along the Diarra River 2002 1 1 0 Welfare (Rescue) 1 Carter 2003a, 2013-14
200 Chimpanzee Guinea Unspecified 2 2 0 Welfare (Rescue) 1 Carter 2013-14
201 Chimpanzee Guinea Mafour core area of Haut Niger National Park 55,400 2008, 2011 16 13 3 Conservation (Reinforcement) Welfare (Rehabilitation) 1 1 1 1 1 Humle et al 2011, 2013, Ongman et al 2013, Raballand 2008, Vanlangendonck et al 2013.
202 Chimpanzee Senegal Fongoli 2009 1 1 0 Welfare (Rescue) 1 1 Carter 2013-14, Preutz 2011, Preutz and Kante 2010
22999 22052 947 102 47 6 12 31 11 52 16 20 105 95 32
Percentage 95.9 4.1 Percentage 50.5 23.3 3.0 6.0 15.3 5.5 25.7 7.9 9.9 52.0 47.0 15.8

Please note that this work is protected under copyright status. However, use of this research, data table, and charts are allowed as long as proper citations and credits are attributed to this author, Dr. Benjamin B. Beck.

 

Site Design By Salt Water Media, Berlin Maryland   www.saltwatermedia.com